This traditionally styled end table makes good use of easier methods for shaping curves to achieve an attractive, rounded appearance. You cut out the curves with a band saw, then shape them smooth by flush trimming with a router. But, if you don’t have a router, you can shape these curves by roughing them with a band saw then smoothing them with a drum sander mounted in a drill press. You could also do the shaping with a saber saw and a then smooth the surfaces with a spokeshave, files, or a drum sander in a hand drill, though the last alternative is hard to control. Parts List, all 3/4″ thick stock 6- 4 x 32 legs 4- 4 x 20 rails 1- 24 x 24 top 1- 20 x 20 shelf various scraps for screw blocks
Here is how to Build an End Table Out of Wood
Photo 1– Gluing up the leg blanks. There are six pieces of wood being clamped together here, but no glue in the middle joint, so you end up with two groups of three each. Clean all the glue off with hot water and rags while it’s wet. For the legs, glue together two sets of three boards, each board at 3/4 x 4 x 32″, as in photo 1. There is no glue in the middle lamination. When out of clamps rip each set of three down the middle as in photo 2. Make this cut in stages, first at 1″ above the table, then at 2″. The result will be four pieces at about 1-1/16″ thick. Sand the sawn faces smooth with a belt sander, or plane them with a planer or hand plane.
Photo 2– Take each of the glue blanks and rip it down the middle to make each leg. Do the cut in increments, first with the blade at 1″ height and
then higher. Draw a 1″ grid on one of the legs, and trace the shape of the leg in the grid to match the drawing. Trace and erase, trace and erase until you have drawn smooth lines. Bandsaw the leg to shape- but don’t cut off the small triangle at the foot yet- you’ll need that to flush trim the other legs.
Photo 3– After you rough cut the first leg on the band saw, sand it smooth with a drum sander in the drill press as shown. Sand smooth the curve edges of the leg with a drum sander at the drill press as in photo 3. You could also use the drum with a hand-held drill, or smooth it with a curve sole spokeshave. Make the curve smooth and flowing.
Photo 4– Now flush trim the other legs to the shape of the first by using the first as a template at the router table. Keep your fingers away from the bit at all times. Trace the shape of this leg onto the other three, and bandsaw close to these lines. Then attach the first leg to one of the others with small pieces of plywood and nails on the ends of the legs as in photo 4. This is why you left that triangle on the foot, so there would be room to fit the plywood. Locate the second leg on the first so that it overlaps all around. Then use the first leg as a template with a flush trim bit in the router table as shown.
The photo shows a flush trim bit with the bearing mounted at the shank, but bits with the bearing mounted on the end will work just as well. The length of the cutting flutes on the bit needs to be at least 1-1/4″. Flush trim all the legs to shape, then cut off the triangles on the feet and sand this area smooth. Next set up a 1/2″ radius roundover bit in the router table, and use this to round over the edges of the table legs. You can round over the entire edge if you wish, but by doing a partial round over you achieve a more subtle effect. Do this by lowering the bit in the router table so that it’s lower portion does not contact the wood in the cut. Don’t round over in the area where the dowels will go for the shelf.
RAIL TO LEG JOINTS
Photo 5– Cutting the miters on the ends of the rails at the table saw. Do this before you shape the rails because you need to flip the part to do the other end, so you need two straight edges to get accurate miters. Rip rail stock to 3-1/2″ wide, and then cut to length at 19-1/2″ on the table saw with the miter gauge as in photo 5. Set the blade at 45o to the table, and set the miter gauge at 90o. Screw a backup piece on the miter fence as shown to support the rails and prevent tear out where the blade comes out of the cut. Draw the curve (same as for the top) on one of the rails, cut it out on the band saw then sand to shape as before. Use this rail to trace the others, then band saw them close to the line.
Next use the first to flush trim the others just as you did with the legs. You may not be able to get the flush trim bit to clean up the ends of the rails because of the miters, in this case leave an inch or so on the ends and sand it smooth. Attach the first rail to the others by nailing them together on the top edges.
Photo 6– Cut biscuit joints on the mitered ends of the rails like so. Your biscuit joiner fence should be adaptable for such a cut- most are, but if not, make a 45o fitting to hold the biscuit joiner steady. Use a biscuit joiner to join the legs to the rails. To cut biscuit slots on the rail ends, use your biscuit joiner to set up on a 45o surface as in photo 6. Most biscuit joiners have fences that allow this kind of cut. Carefully align the cut, and make it where the wood is thick so the slot doesn’t come through the other side. Cut slots in the legs with the biscuit joiner fence in the 90o position as in photo 7.
You can join the legs to the rails with dowels if you have a dowel jig that will locate dowels on a mitered edge. Few dowel jigs will do this, one that does is the Record jig. You could locate the dowels with a drill press jig that holds the rails in the right location for accurate boring.
Photo 7– Use the biscuit joiner in its normal 90o configuration to cut slots in the legs for the rails.
TOP AND SHELF
Edge glue enough pieces together for the top and shelf, to get plates that measure 24″ square and 20″ square. Your biscuit joiner will really help you out here, keeping the pieces aligned to each other during the glue up. For the shelf, use one of the rails to flush trim the shape into the edges. First trace the shape onto the shelf, and locate the corner surfaces that will join the legs as shown in the drawing. Then rough cut the curves on the band saw. Now attach one of the rails on the bottom of the shelf on one side with small finish nails. Drill three 1/16″ diameter holes in the rail and place the nails in these holes. Flush trim this side of the shelf, then move the rail to the next. Later, fill the holes with putty. Use a similar procedure to shape the top. Draw grid lines on a piece of scrap and trace the shape from the drawing. Cut this out and sand it smooth, then use this template to trace each side and then flush trim it.
Photo 8– Use a dowel jig to bore holes in the shelf corners and in the legs. Use 3/8″ dowels. Shown is the Stanley dowel jig. Bore holes in the shelf ends for 3/8″ dowels with a dowel jig as in photo 8. Mark locations on the legs for the corresponding dowel holes. Do so at the point of the curve on the legs which is at 90o to the floor. Because of the round over, you may need to flatten this spot on the legs to get level areas for the shelf ends to contact. Do this with a block plane or stationary sander. Use the dowel jig to bore holes in the legs. If you choose, put a router detail on the edges of the top and shelf, but stop the detail before it gets to the corners of the shelf.
Photo 9– Band clamps and bar clamps being used to pull the assembly together. Note the clamp blocks between the clamps and the rails. Don’t squeeze too hard with bar clamps on a mitered biscuit joint like this or you’ll tweak the biscuits. Band clamps work wonders for glue ups like this (photo 9). But, they aren’t always strong enough to pull the joints tight, so use bar clamps -gently- as shown to pull it tight. Another way to pull all this together is with nylon cord, which stretches a bit. If you wrap 100 feet of it tightly around the assembly, the combined squeeze of all the wrappings provides adequate pressure. Once out of clamps or cord install corner blocks with glue and screws as shown in photo 10 to strengthen the joints.
Photo 10– Biscuits are strong but adding corner blocks like this will tremendously lengthen the life of your table’s joints. Miter them so they fit well and wet out the end grain of the miters with glue for 5 minutes before you put them in place to let the pores suck up as much glue as they can before it gets squeezed out. Otherwise the pores might pull the glue out of the joint, starving it for glue. Predrill for the screws.
ATTACHING THE TOP
Any wide wooden plate, like this top, will have substantial movement across the grain. Therefore, don’t glue the top to the rails, but screw it on with blocks at about ¾ x ¾ x 4 inches or so. Make the holes in the blocks for the screw shanks that go into the top about twice the diameter of the shanks, and use washers to hold the screw head to the wood.
This way the table top can move all it wants to, dragging the screws along with it within the large holes. FINISH Sand to 220 grit. On a table like this that will probably get exposed to moisture from glasses or flower vases, use a water resistant finish like satin polyurethane varnish. Sand lightly with 400 grit paper between coats, and finish up with paste wax.
A good book on the subject of finishes is Bob Flexner’s Understanding Wood Finishing.
As an apprentice woodworker I first learned the use of machines to do rectilinear work quickly and efficiently. But I also found that rectilinear work was, well, boring to my taste, and I began to think about curves. Two of the most attractive curve forms I’ve found on furniture are the cabriole leg and the oval, or ellipse. Both of these curve forms spark the interest of the eye because the arcs of their curves are constantly changing through their shapes, unlike a circle which, by definition, has a regular radius.
Though you can use machines to help make these shapes, using hand tools to create and smooth the final form is still one of the most efficient ways to do it. You can use a stationary sander to shape the legs. But a spokeshave has the advantage that it tends to create a smooth line, like a handplane. Moving sandpaper cuts wherever you apply it, and can easily make depressions right where you don’t want them. A spokeshave will tend to pass over gullies and cut high spots, thus making the contour regular.
Spokeshaves, drawknives and scrapers are the more skilled approach to this kind of work. But they don’t require years of experience to learn how to use. They must, repeat must, be sharp, (see article on sharpening) but once you pass that simple hurdle they present a problem only on end grain. And, by following a progression of simple steps, it is not difficult to achieve beautiful, flowing lines. It is, however, time consuming to do this work. But what a pleasurable way to pass the time- no irritating dust to breath, or noisy machines to rattle your nerves; just you, a sharp iron, and wood.
The oval table top causes a complication with the stretcher rails that join the legs underneath. The stretchers must join the legs at an angle, rather than at 90o to the rear face of the legs. You could orient the legs so that the rear faces point toward the center, but if you did so the front face of the legs would not be parallel to the edge of the oval top where the legs join the top. This would look very odd. The solution is to cut angled tenons on the stretchers that fit into right-angled mortises on the legs. Study drawing #1 to understand how the parts are aligned.
Parts List- Side Table (inches) 4- 1-3/4 x 4 x 33 -legs
8- 1-3/4 x 4 x 12 -knee blocks
4- 3/4 x 3-1/4 x 13-1/2 -stretchers
4- 1-1/2 x 2 x 10 -rails
1- 1/2 x 29 x 37 -top
Resources for building an oval side table
- Drill Presses
- Drill Bits
- Measuring and Layout Tools
- Band Saws
- Scrapers at Woodcraft
- Table Saws
- Lathes and Turning Tools
- Dado Sets
- Hand Saws
- Hand Drill
Let’s start with the legs since they are the bulk of the job. Get out the four legs at 1-3/4 x 4 x 33-1/2 inches. The thickness is not critical, and you can use surfaced 2x lumber just as it comes from the hardwood store, but be sure the parts are fairly straight so you won’t have problems gluing on the knee blocks. Make a paper template using the scale drawing given (drawing #2). Once you have sketched in the lines on paper for your template, check to see that the lines flow smoothly by sighting down your drawing with your eye close to the plane of the paper. That is, line your eye with the line of the drawing, or a section thereof. From this angle you can see easily how smooth the line is. Duplicating the drawing exactly is not as important as making smooth lines. Also be sure the leg tapers consistently.
Cut out your template and trace it onto one side of each leg blank. The leg blanks are 1/2″ longer than the template, to give a horn on the top. The horn is an extension left on the end of a piece that will be mortised. Its purpose is to prevent the end from splitting while you hammer a chisel into the mortise while cutting its walls. Once the mortise is complete, cut the horn off. Locate the template with the horn at the top, since that is where the leg-rail mortise will be. Also- note the grain direction of each piece of wood and locate the template such that there is no short grain through the slender curves of the lower leg, where breaking might occur.
Photo 1- Start the mortises in the legs by boring holes with a drill press or dowel jig.
Bore holes to start the mortises in the legs for the rails and stretchers as in photo 1. Bore two 1/2″ holes at the top of each leg, directly adjacent to each other at 1″ deep. Locate the upper end of the holes at 1″ from the end of the leg. Thus when the horn is removed the mortise will be 1\2″ from the leg top. Bore 3/8″ holes, 1/2″ deep for the stretcher rail mortises. Again make the holes adjacent, and locate their mutual center at 10″ above the leg bottom.
Photo 2- Scribe the rectangular sides of the mortises around the bored holes. Circular holes find rectangular mortises very boring.
Use a dowel jig to bore the holes, or use a simple drill press setup as in photo 1. Note the spacer between the leg blank and the clamped stop block in the photo. Locate the clamped block to position the hole furthest from the part end, then insert the spacer, whose thickness is equal to the distance required between hole centers. This is the quickest setup to use to ensure that all four mortises are similarly located.
Photo 3- Begin chiseling the mortises by making angled cuts from the scribed lines. This establishes the perimeter of the mortise, giving you an easy reference edge to work to as you complete the mortise.
Use a square to mark out the top and bottom of each mortise as in photo 2. Sharpen your chisels, and first use them to establish the rectangular opening at the top of the mortise. Place the chisel on the marked line at the mortise top or bottom as in photo 3. Angle the chisel toward the center of the mortise for these initial cuts. Make similar cuts along the sides as in photo 4, aligning the cuts with the two edges of the holes as shown. Next make directly vertical cuts with your chisels as in photo 5, working your way inside out toward the rectangular opening you made previously. Use the walls of the bored holes as references to be sure that your cuts are vertical. Do not cut beyond the walls of these holes. Leave the mortises slightly small for now, and make them larger as needed later when you have the tenons at hand to fit the two together well.
Photo 4- Establishing the sides of the mortise.
Photo 5- Once the mortise perimeter is established, make vertical cuts to clear out the mortise, working toward the perimeter.
Next band saw out the legs as in photo 6. Note that in this step you cut only the front and back face of the leg with the band saw, not the sides. You’ll taper the sides later with drawknife and spokeshave. Use the band sawn legs to scribe the shape of the upper legs onto knee blocks, cut these out and glue them onto the legs as in photo 7. Match the figure, color and grain direction of the knee block pieces as closely to the legs as possible. Be sure they are clamped tight so the glue line is as small as possible.
Photo 6- Scribe the leg shape on the leg sides and cut out on the band saw.
Photo 7- Gluing the knee blocks to the leg tops.
Once the knee blocks are out of clamps, scribe the taper onto them using a template made from drawing 3. Before band sawing these cuts, tape the waste pieces from behind the upper legs back in place as in photo 8 to provide support for the leg during the cut. Cut the tapers as in photo 9.
Photo 8- Before cutting the taper on the knee blocks, tape the waste onto the back of the legs so that the leg is supported on the band saw table during the cut.
Photo 9- Cutting the knee block tapers.
The tools you’ll use to shape the legs are shown in photo 10. They are: a drawknife, for roughing out the form; two spokeshaves, one with a flat sole and the other with a curved sole; and a scraper, for final smoothing.
Photo 10- Left- drawknife. Top- flat sole spokeshave. Right- curve sole spokeshave. Center- scraper.
You’ll find flat and curved spokeshaves, drawknives and scrapers at Woodcraft.
The difference between any spokeshave and a drawknife is that the spokeshaves have soles which regulate the depth of cut. A drawknife removes much material fast because it can remove large shavings, but it is hard to control for careful detailing. Because the spokeshave removes less with each pass, you can carefully remove high spots and fair them into the overall shape. The spokeshave sole guides the tool along the contours of the work. To avoid chatter during the cut, it is important to apply downward pressure on the tool as you use it to keep the sole firmly on the wood surface.
A flat sole spokeshave is generally easier to control because the flat sole is easier to keep firmly on the work. However, the flat sole prevents the tool from cutting internal curves, such as the splat foot on these legs and the curve behind the knee at the top. This is where the curve sole is needed (photo 11). The flat sole will cut internal curves with large radii however, like the front lower section of the leg above the foot.
Photo 11- Shaving the top of the splat foot with the curve sole spokeshave.
Whether you are using a drawknife, spokeshave, or scraper, always follow the grain direction. Failure to do so will result in tearout. If the tearout is severe enough, smoothing it out will visibly alter the contour of the curve.
SHAPING THE LEGS
Do the shaping in two main stages. First, flatten all sides in the horizontal direction so that the legs are rectangular in cross section everywhere. This is how the legs come out of the band saw, so you are just smoothing the sides. The second part of this first main stage is to fair in the curves vertically with both drawknife and spokeshaves. Only then, after the sides are smooth and the curves fair, do the second main stage which is to round over the corners. The reason for this succession of stages is partly because many of the corners will remain sharp (with only slight roundovers) to begin with, but also it is easiest to check for smooth, flowing shapes on a side by sighting down a sharp corner (or arris, as it is called). Use these arrises as references to judge how smooth and uniform the curves are in the vertical direction.
Begin with the curve sole spokeshave on the splat foot (photo 11). Hold the leg in a bar clamp lengthwise which in turn is held in a bench vise. Unfortunately this cut, being at nearly 90o to the grain, is an endgrain cut and is by far the most difficult cut to make with the spokeshaves. If you’ve never used a spokeshave before, experiment with scrap first to see how the tool works and to encourage yourself that indeed the tool does work well when not on endgrain. As I said before, the blade must be sharp, and new blades need sharpening (see sidebar on sharpening). Adjust the tool for a minimal depth of cut with the adjusting knobs. Note in photo 11 the position of the thumbs on the tool, which helps apply pressure where it’s needed. You must apply a great deal of pressure when cutting hardwood endgrain such as this. Start the cut on the edges where you will cut less, and work your way into the middle. Don’t worry about a bit of chattering, that can be cleaned up later with a scraper. Use the curve sole spokeshave to clean up the top rear of each leg too.
Photo 12- Smoothing the legs with the flat sole spokeshave.
Photo 13– Sighting the curves and marking high spots.
Use the flat sole spokeshave to smooth the rest of the front and back surfaces on each leg (photo 12). This is not the final smoothing, but just serves to eliminate the rough band sawn surfaces so you can see the shape of the curves for the next step, which is shaping the curves with the drawknife. Sight down the line of the corners, as in photo 13, looking for high spots. Mark these roughly with a pencil. Use a drawknife at about a 45o angle to bring the corner down to your pencil mark as in photo 14. Then remove the high spots with the drawknife lying flat on the side as in photo 15, and cut down to the line you made with the drawknife at an angle. ALWAYS be careful to follow grain direction with a drawknife.
Photo 14– First use the drawknife on the corners at an angle to cut to your drawn lines. This gives you an easy reference point to look to as you then shape each leg side.
Photo 15- Pull off the high spots on the leg sides, cutting only to the lines you made in the last step.
Mark the front and rear faces of the leg at the area of the stretcher mortise to make the width of the leg at this point become about 1-1/8″ (photo 16). Again use the drawknife at an angle to cut down to this point, and then fair that line into the line of the upper leg (photo 17). Don’t bring this line all the way down to the foot yet. With the lines established clear out the waste with the drawknife on the sides and smooth with the flat sole spokeshave.
Photo 16- Mark the leg widths on the backs in the area of the stretcher mortise.
Photo 17- Taper the leg sides from the knee block to the area of the mortise, but not to the foot yet.
Photo 18– Marking out the front of the foot.
Photo 19- Marking out the back of the foot.
Mark out the foot by sketching in the shape of the front as in photo 18. Then mark the rear of the foot to match the width of the leg in the area of the stretcher mortise (photo 19). Again use the drawknife to bring the lines of the corners close to the drawn lines (photo 20). You’ll need the curve sole spokeshave to do so on the front of the foot (photo 21). Then clear out the waste, this time using the curve sole spokeshave alone, as in photo 22. The sole of the shave is curved front to rear, but is straight side to side, and so is perfect to shape around the cylindrical form of the foot as it tapers into the leg.
Photo 20- Roughing out the back of the foot with the drawknife, making the initial angled cut to the drawn lines.
Photo 21- Using the curve sole spokeshave on the foot front to make the initial angled cut to the drawn lines.
Photo 22- Shaping the foot sides to the angled cuts with the curve sole spokeshave.
The next step is to smooth all the curves on the four faces with the flat and curved sole spokeshaves, until you achieve smooth, flowing lines. Leave the corners sharp so you can easily see the shape of the curve on each surface. All of this shaping will take a “fair” amount of time (pardon the pun), and you should not rush it. Your eye can handle only so much looking at and comparing of shapes before you get tired. Once you reach a certain point, sleep on it, come back tomorrow and check again with a fresh perspective.
When you are satisfied that the lines are all smooth and flowing, round over the front edges of the legs with the spokeshaves. The greatest amount of rounding should be in the area opposite the stretcher mortises on the leg fronts, and taper the rounding in both directions, down to nothing just above the foot and just beyond the intersection of the knee blocks and main leg. Begin this rounding with the spokeshave set for a heavy cut, then finish up with it set on a light cut to make an even surface. Whether or not you round over the back edges is up to you, but note that the stretchers must have flat surfaces for the tenon shoulders to contact.
Photo 23- Scraping the legs smooth.
Photo 24– Final shaping and smoothing of the rounded leg corners.
Once you have smoothed and rounded to your satisfaction with the spokeshaves, use a scraper to smooth out the facets left by the spokeshave knives (photos 23 + 24). The scraper is your last shaping tool, and though it takes off very little at a time it will remove enough to make a depression if you cut too much in one spot. You will probably have a few spots where you weren’t able to always follow the grain correctly with the spokeshaves, like the glue line of the knee blocks, where the grain direction may run opposite on either side of the glue line. Thus there will be some tearout, and the scraper is just the thing to clean it up. Use the scraper to give a slight roundover to the sharp edges left on the legs.
Photo 25– Cutting kerfs at the table saw to start the resaw process for the top pieces.
Photo 26- Complete the cut on the band saw.
For a nice table like this, bookmatching the top pieces adds a special touch. Resaw 2x pieces to get your bookmatched set. This will go easier if you first cut kerfs in the edges of the pieces on the table saw as in photo 25, using a thin kerf blade preferably. Then cut through the remaining wood in the middle with a band saw as in photo 26. The resulting pieces need to be planed and edge jointed, then glued up as in photo 27. If you don’t have a jointer, carefully do the edge jointing on the table saw with a good quality carbide blade, or with a hand jointer plane.
Photo 27- Gluing up the top pieces.
Use the string and nails method to scribe the oval top (photo 28). On the under side of the top, locate two nails 22 inches apart and equidistant from the center. (Don’t drive the nails right in your glue line.) Make a loop of string 28 inches long when doubled, and use it as shown to scribe the oval line. Cut out the shape on the band saw, or with a sabre saw.
Photo 28- The string and nail method for marking an ellipse. Pull the loop tight with the pencil and scribe around the entire perimeter.
Use scrap pieces from around the edges of the cut to double the edge of the top (photo 29). Make these pieces 1-1/2″ wide. Glue the pieces onto the underside of the top directly adjacent to where they were cut off, so that the color matches and so that the grain direction of the edge piece matches that of the table edge. Otherwise you could have a cross-grain situation that would cause problems later. Once out of clamps smooth the edge with spokeshaves or a stationary sander, and roundover the edges to your liking.
Photo 29- Gluing the edge pieces in place.
Photo 30- Boring holes in the center post blank for mortises.
Cut the stretcher center post out of 2x stock, with angles as shown in the drawings. The piece starts as a parallelogram in section. Lay out and bore holes for mortises just as you did for the legs (photo 30). These mortises should be centered along the final width of the faces, which is different from the center of the faces after the angles are cut on the table saw (see drawing). Next mount the piece in the lathe and turn a pretty design to your liking. Be sure to leave an adequate area on the faces for the stretcher shoulders to contact. Because I used highly figured wood for the post, I chose to wet sand it on the lathe to 600 grit to bring out the figure (photo 31). If you don’t have a lathe make the piece 3 inches long and round over all edges with about a 1/8″ radius.
Photo 31- Turn the center post to a nice shape. Make sure you leave adequate flat areas around the mortises for the stretcher shoulders.
Cut out four pieces at 3/4 x 3-1/4 x 13 for the stretchers. Cut the tenon faces on the ends of these pieces at the table saw with a dado set as in photo 32. The tenons that enter the center post are parallel to the center line of the stretcher, and are easily cut with the dado set at 90o as shown, using the miter gauge for support and the rip fence to adjust the tenon length of 1/2″.
Photo 32- Dado setup for square tenons on stretchers where they join the center post.
The tenons that enter the legs are at a 15o angle to the centers of the stretchers, as discussed above. These can be cut with the dado too, using a slightly different setup as in photo 33. Attach an extension fence onto the miter gauge, and clamp a stop block onto this fence as shown to refer the cut off the opposite end of the piece. Alternate sides of the tenon must be cut on alternate sides of the blade, so make the extension fence long enough to locate the stop block on both sides. Be sure to line up both angled shoulders so that they are on the same plane.
Photo 33- Dado setup for angled tenons on stretchers where they join the legs.
Adjust the thickness of the tenons so that they are just slightly wider than the mortises. Cut out the side faces of the tenons for the top rails using a similar setup.
Photo 34- Use a handsaw to cut the tenons on the stretchers.
Now trace the shape of the stretchers onto the pieces (drawing 4), cut them out, and shape as you did with the legs, but this time rounding over all arrises. Then cut the upper and lower faces of the tenons using a handsaw and chisels as in photos 34 + 35. Now carefully fit each tenon to its corresponding mortise by increasing the mortise or reducing the tenon, whichever seems best to you. Take off small amounts during this process to gradually bring the pieces to a snug fit. If you remove too much, you can glue pieces onto the tenons to make up the difference (an old furniture repairer’s trick), but try to avoid that by proceeding slowly in the first place.
Photo 35- Clean up the tenons and shoulders with a sharp chisel. Pare the tenons down to fit the mortises well.
The four rails that join at the leg tops point toward the inside of the table top at odd angles. Their centers are at 90o to the back faces of the legs (unlike the stretchers). On a table this size, there is no need to join the rails themselves together. Secure each rail to the underside of the top with three screws per rail. Carefully bore the holes and countersinks in the rails for these screws so that the screws won’t come through the top.
Note that the rail is offset from the leg in height because the leg contacts the edging on the top, whereas the rail contacts in the middle.
But don’t screw the rails on just yet. The exact location of the legs on the underside of the top must be a function of the alignment of the stretchers. When you glue up the stretcher assembly you must carefully align all parts so that the tenon shoulders butt properly against the respective surfaces of the legs and the center post. Make this fit your highest priority, and let the exact location of the legs on the top fall where it may in the wake of properly fitting stretcher joints. You won’t notice a leg that’s 1/4″ to the left of where it’s “supposed” to be, but you will notice gaps at the stretcher joints.
After fitting all tenons, bore screw holes and countersinks in the top rails, but not yet in the underside of the top. Dry fit the top rails to the legs. Put the top, bottom side up, on your bench. Glue all the stretcher tenons and mortises, and assemble on the underside of the top. Use a band clamp as in photo 36 to pull in the joints. The band clamp will tend to pull the legs that are closest to each other toward each other moreso than toward their opposing counterparts. I wrapped fishing line around legs that needed to be brought closer to each other. I found that 8 lb. test line had good elasticity which neatly pulled the legs closer. Use whatever clamps, fishing line, etc., that are necessary to pull individual legs this way or that until all the joints are tight. Note the stick set between the center post and table top. The action of the clamps may tend to pull the post toward the top; the stick prevents this.
Confirm that the leg tops are close to where they ought to be on the underside of the table, and that they are parallel and square to the table top. If you have done all your stretcher joinery carefully, the stretcher joints should line up and the legs should be parallel and close to their locations.
Photo 36- Pulling it all together is the fun part.
Let the stretchers dry. Then, glue the top rail joints, and locate the leg tops where you want them, and bore through the screw holes in the rails onto the underside of the top for the screws. Now sink the screws through the rails into the top. Put another band clamp onto the legs, as close to the leg tops as possible without it sliding, and tighten to bring the glued rail joints together.
Lastly install screws through the back of the legs into the edge pieces of the top as in photo 37. These will help stabilize the table.
Photo 37- Set screws into the top through the legs for added stability.
A scraper leaves a smooth surface, but you may find that along some areas it will chatter and leave a less than perfect surface. Wet sand with 220 grit paper to remove these imperfections, and then follow that up wet sanding with 320 grit. Don’t bother with 400 and 600 grit unless your wood is highly figured, because fine polishing of ordinary lumber doesn’t usually make much visual difference, whereas polishing figured lumber is like polishing a gemstone.
For this California black walnut I chose orange shellac for the finish partly because the orange hue compliments the red of the wood. But shellac is not the best finish for a table top because it does not resist water and alcohol which will eventually land on the table. Polyurethane varnish, though impervious to water and alcohol, just seems inappropriate for such a traditional table. High quality tung oil varnish is probably the best bet if you don’t want to treat the table with the caution required with a shellac finish.
As a woodworker, you may have realized that finding the right detailed plans to build some custom projects to meet specific needs can be very difficult. This is among the most common problems woodworkers face today, but luckily for you, this and other related problem shouldn’t bother you.
At TedsWoodworking.com, Ted Mcgrath, a certified master woodworker, trainer, and author gives more than 16,000 plans, with step-by-step blueprints for various woodworking projects.
So what’s TedsWoodworking all about?
Building complex projects or even the simple ones to meet specific needs can be very difficult even to experienced woodworkers especially when you can’t find a detailed plan. And most of the so-called “step by step” guides found online and in various magazines make building some projects harder than it should be. This is because the plans are sometimes not specific enough or their instructions leave out crucial information assuming that you have enough experience to know what to do.
In addition, often, such plans don’t have enough detail. For instance, some don’t include pictures or the pictures they have don’t match what they are telling you. Still, some don’t even include cut sheets, so you are forced to “guesstimate” materials.
Ted Mcgrath spent over 25 years studying these problems and finding solutions. He put together a comprehensive collection of wood-working plans. Tedswoodworking.com is his website which offers woodworkers solutions to various woodworking problems, especially those related to finding the right plans for various projects. The site has detailed plans for over 16, 000 projects. Every plan comes with a step-by-step blueprint to make it easier for you to create stunning, professional wood-working projects hassle-free, quickly, and easily.
Who is TedsWoodworking for?
If you are a woodworker looking for detailed plans to start building your dream projects, or if you want a variety of plans for various unique projects, then tedswoodworking.com has you covered. The website has helpful insights for both beginner woodworkers and the more experienced ones.
Why you should check this out
Occasionally, you are presented with a challenging project, for instance, a customer comes and wants something custom-made for them. Without having a detailed plan, it may be very difficult to build such projects quickly and be able to meet your customer’s needs. TedsWoodworking comes in handy, providing you with a variety of plans with complete easy-to-understand instructions.
You will also get new insights and learn new tricks of completing projects even if you do not have expensive tools or a large woodworking workshop. And given the wide range of projects and complete plans available on the website, you no longer need to spend days or months looking for someone to complete a project for you. You will build even the most challenging projects yourself.
Here are a few things the site has to offer:
- Easy-to-understand step by step instructions; Every plan has simple “hold-you-by-the-hand” instructions that will assist you to complete your projects quickly.
- Materials and Cutting lists ensuring that you get the right materials and make correct cuttings. This saves you a lot of money.
- You get sharp, colourful and detailed schematics. No guesswork is involved, you will know what to do and how to do it and complete your projects within the shortest time possible.
- The plans give you views from all angles. You will see how everything should look like before you start building. The intricate details for every joint, angle and corner make sure you are not left guessing.
- Various lists of plans (16,000+). In addition, you will also get new plans every month for free.
The plans cover all levels of competence and skills. You don’t have to be an expert wood-worker or have expensive tools and machinery to use the plans.
Whether you are a pro woodworker, an amateur, or a beginner with hand tools, you will find several projects suitable for you.
What You Won’t Like about Teds Woodworking?
Although Teds Woodworking has a lot of good things to offer, it has also some flaws. Since this contains thousands of plans, it takes time to download it, particularly if your internet speed isn’t up to mark.
Nevertheless, this advantage may be nullified if you choose the DVD version of Teds Woodworking. You’ll have every plan in a portable DVD and you don’t need to spend time in front of your computer to download the pack.
But, if you pick the DVD version, you’ll have to wait several days for the shipping. Aside from that, organizing a total of 16,000 plans isn’t a simple task. You do need to utilize the search option to locate the plan you’re looking for.
Why Should You Choose Teds Woodworking?
If you are planning to purchase 16,000 plans individually, it’ll cost you loads of money. However, Ted is offering everything for a limited launch price of only $67.
Thousands of woodworkers are using his plans to create awesome stuff out of wood. It’s now you turn to get in on the action.
A garden shed serves as an excellent storage space where you can safely keep all your garden and lawn-related equipment such as leaf blowers, watering cans, lawnmowers, and many others. It is also super multipurpose, which makes it a highly useful addition to your backyard. You can even store BBQ supplies in a garden shed, which greatly prevents the hassle of moving them from one place to the other.
Most garden sheds are made of wood, which makes them incredibly durable and long-lasting. One great thing about wooden sheds is that they look super chic, and you can paint them your favorite color or create patterns to add a customized effect.
If your backyard doesn’t have a shed, you can easily build with from scratch. While building a garden shed isn’t an easy project, especially for beginners, you can still make one with the help of free woodworking plans available online. These plans also allow you to access garden shed plans PDF files that are easily downloadable on your laptop or computer.
However, if you are looking for a quick, step-by-step guide on how to build a garden shed right now, here’s an easy one for you with proper instructions and steps.
Step 1: Gather Essential Tools
First things first, you need to gather all the essential tools, supplies, and materials that you’d need to build a garden shed. These include the following:
- Wooden stakes
- Wood glue
- Carpenter’s pencil
- Hand saw
- Step ladder
- Safety equipment
- Wood clamps
- Wood chisels
- Measuring tape
- Screws and nails
- Wood chisels
- Nail gun
Step 2: Cut the Wood
Once you have all the supplies in place, the next step is wood-cutting. You need proportionately-cut wooden pieces for four main things:
- Garden shed floor
- Garden shed ramp
- Garden shed door
- Garden shed base
Depending on how big or small you want your garden shed to be and also the amount of space you have available, cut the wooden boards accordingly.
Step 3: Triangular Roof Brace
If you’ve noticed, most garden sheds have a triangle-shaped roof brace, so it’s best to stick to that shape only. You first need to draw out the pattern or shape for the roof brace on a piece of plywood. You will require four different boards to make a vertical triangle.
Step 4: Build the Foundation
In order to protect your garden from moisture and other similar weather-related factors, you need a strong gravel foundation, which will greatly help keep the shed dry.
First, layer an adequate amount of gravel on the ground and smoothen it out with the help of a shovel. Then, place concrete blocks in evenly spaced-out rows on the gravel, followed by playing wooden boards on top of concrete blocks. Join the boards together with the help of a nail gun and some nails.
Step 5: Create Shed Walls
Once you have a solid foundation ready, move on to creating the walls for your garden shed. With the help of a chalk line, mark a platform that you wish to use a support for the back wall of the shed. Make sure the lines are parallel to each other by taking measurements at different points.
Then, lay out the wooden boards that you had cut earlier for the back wall and join them together with the help of the nail gun, hammer, and nails.
Repeat the same step for the side walls as well.
Step 6: Build the Door and Front Wall
To make the garden shed door, begin by creating a door frame. Use the wooden boards to mark the height of the door as well as the width. Nail the boards into place in order to form the frame.
Now, use this garden shed door frame to build the front wall. Keep the door in place in order to determine the size of the front wall. Cut a board in a way that it fits the top of the door frame perfectly. Cut another piece of board that goes from the previous board all the way to the top board of the wall frame.
Step 7: Nail the Roof Brace to the Side Walls
Take the triangular roof braces that you created earlier in step 3 and nail them to the top of the side walls.
Next, take a drill and start nailing all the walls together. Get someone to help you to raise the back wall in order to nail it in place. One by one, lift all the wooden walls that you created and nail them securely with the help of the drill and nails.
Step 8: The Roof
At this point, you should have a fully structured, standing-up garden shed, but without the roof. Create the roof by nailing a wooden board towards the top of the front and back walls. This will help provide a brace for the rafters that you need to place towards the sides of the board. Place a rafter on each end of the roof and make sure that they are evenly spaced out.
Step 9: Install the Door
The last thing left for you to do is install the door by attaching hinges on both the walls and the door. You will also have to drill a hole into the door to put in the latch.
Step 10: Paint the Shed (optional)
This is an optional step, but if you want, you can paint your shed with the help of outdoor latex paint. Painting gives it a smooth finish and also makes it look super pretty!
Now that you know how to build a garden shed, you can create your own without any problem. For your help, there are many free woodworking plans, and garden shed plans PDF files that are very detailed and laid out simply for your understanding.
During the cold winter months, if you don’t have an electric heating system (or even if you do), there’s something comforting about warming yourself up in front of a warm fire. But you don’t want to leave your firewood outside where the cold winds, sleet, and snow will make it soft and difficult to light.
Read on as we unfold a step-by-step guide to build a firewood shed on your own that will be strong enough to withstand rough weather and will protect your wood supply from the elements.
Sourcing Firewood Shed Plans
Before you start making your shed or cutting the wood, you need a proper plan to follow. You can find a number of websites such as Ted’s Woodworking where you’ll have access to different shed designs with varying levels of difficulty. Select the plan that works best for you and acquire the amount of wood needed to complete the design.
DIY Firewood Shed
We’ve outlined the basic steps of building any type of firewood shed, from a simple rack to a double story shed that can stand without being supported by the wall of your house:
Step 1: Collecting Your Tools & Supplies
Before getting started, you’ll need to gather all the necessary equipment and raw materials to build the shed, including:
- A firewood shed plan
- Tape measure
- Set Square
- Power drill
- Protective goggles and earmuffs
- Sander & sandpaper (optional)
- Concrete blocks (optional)
- Brush (optional)
- Paint (optional)
Step 2: Prep Yourself
Before you start sawing, drilling, or whatever else is required, you need to get ready for the project. Wear old clothes that can be discarded and make sure they cover you completely to avoid wood splinters or anything else from scratching your arms or legs. Put your safety goggles on (and your earmuffs when you start using the drill), and you’re set.
If you can find a hardhat, it’s a good idea to wear it for extra safety. Keep a first aid kit nearby in case of emergencies.
Step 3: Cut the Wood to the Right Sizes
The plan that you’ll be following will guide you on the size of the wood. The wood will be divided into different categories, including wood for the:
Use your set square, ruler, and a marker to mark the wood. Place the wood sheet onto the sawhorse, and once it’s secure, cut it using the saw.
Step 4: Smooth Out the Wood
If the pieces of wood are very rough, you may need to use a sander and sandpaper to smooth them out. If you’ve bought wood sheets that are pre-sanded or don’t wish to spend any more time or effort on your firewood shed, you may skip this part. However, if the wood is rough, be ready for any jagged bits that may poke you as you work or when you try to get wood from the shed.
Step 5: Build the Wood Frames for the Firewood Shed
Following the plans you’ve selected, arrange the wooden slats to make the frame for each segment of the shed, including the floor and the walls. Drill screws into the framework to secure the pieces of wood into place.
If you’re using a plan where the shed is open from the top and front, then you don’t need to prep any wood for the door and the roof.
Step 6: Set Up the Foundation of the Shed
If you’re building your firewood shed as more of a rack against the wall by the door, you don’t need to prep the base.
However, for a shed standing on its own, you’ll need to build a solid foundation that won’t budge even if there’s heavy rain or snowfall. This is where the cement blocks come into place. On the spot where you intend to set up the shed, dig up some of the earth to create an indent in the ground. Using a set square and a ruler, place the cinder blocks according to the woodworking plan. Add the wooden base on top of this.
Step 7: Complete the Basic Structure of the Shed
Using a power drill and screws, secure the walls onto the foundation of the shed. If you’re planning on dividing it with a shelf in between to separate the different logs of wood, add the center slab of wood at this stage.
Step 8: Add the Roof
If you need additional protection for your firewood, you may need to add a roof. The good thing with a firewood shed is that a simple, single slanting frame will suffice. Prepare the wooden frame the same way you did for the walls and the floor and secure it onto the walls with screws and a power drill.
Step 9: Paint the Shed (Optional)
Although firewood sheds are generally not painted, you may want it to match the exterior of your house. If that is the case, clean the shed thoroughly to get rid of any small bits and pieces. Once you’ve painted the shed, let it dry completely before storing the wood in it.
Build a Shed That Is Functional
Throughout the process, make sure you use the right materials and a good power drill to ensure that the structure of the firewood is strong enough to deal with heavy rain, etc. In humid climates, most people prefer to add a roof and a door to prevent the moisture from ruining the wood. If you live in a climate that isn’t generally humid but is facing a bout of heavy rain, you can use plastic sheeting on top of your shed to keep the wood safe.
Different plans offer designs that combine functionality and style. Some sheds are pyramid-shaped to make taking the wood out easier without causing the domino-effect. Others are divided in half vertically or horizontally to separate the flint wood from the firewood.